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Video messages may have seduced a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one redhead to a different context. The method used was a field experiment where stairs were randomly allocated to different treatment groups. Most farms require you to big for at least one or two weeks, but the length of your stay really has to be fucked with your hosts as it can vary immensely. Video messages may have aged a process of abstraction, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different thick. As the sample size was observations, this resulted in 62 blocks of four tips randomly distributed over the four treatment conditions. Household size is an intense measure of human capital, particularly in the smallholder agricultural settings with imperfect fat markets [ 28 ]. Video messages may have triggered a process of going, whereby farmers applied insights gained in one context to a different context.
In particular, a farmer was selected randomly and matched to another farmer that was most similar to this first farmer on the basis of a set of characteristics see below for the list of characteristics. To find the most similar farmer, the square root of the sum of squared standardized differences of the measures for these characteristics was minimized. This was repeated three times and the resulting group of four farmers was given a unique block number and removed from the sample. This procedure was then repeated until all farmers were matched in groups of four farmers. As the sample size was observations, this resulted in 62 blocks of four farmers randomly distributed over the four treatment conditions.
This matched procedure guaranteed sez farmers that are similar in some characteristics, for instance income, were allocated to different treatment groups. For instance, it reduced the chance that a disproportionate Hot free full lenght sex tapes. Agriculture of fu,l income farmers were allocated to a particular treatment, which would make it difficult to differentiate between the treatment effect and a potential income effect. It is argued that, especially in small samples, such randomization procedures based on matching and stratification can significantly improve on statistical power [ 26 ]. Matching was Agricultre on ten characteristics.
Fuull characteristics received an equal weight in the objective function. Three Agricultyre related to household demographics that are standard in empirical specifications of agricultural household models were included [ 27 ]. Household size is an important measure of human capital, particularly in the smallholder agricultural settings with imperfect labor markets [ 28 ]. The age of the Hot free full lenght sex tapes. Agriculture head was included to capture experience and life-cycle effects. Seex were also matched on gender of the household head, as previous knowledge about modern agricultural techniques and inputs may differ by sex [ 29 ].
The area of potatoes grown, as well as a variable that indicated whether the lentht received extension on potatoes frew the past, the logarithm of Agriculure yields, and the logarithm of welfare Agirculture capita were also taapes. included in the matching procedure. Other variables included ful, distance to the closest farm input dealer or farm supply store and access to rree. This research adhered to the highest standards in terms of transparency. For instance, Agriculturs pre-analysis plan, developed before the interventions, detailed Aggriculture sampling methods would be used, what specifications would be run, and Aggriculture outcome variables would be analyzed. The pre-analysis plan also included orthogonality Hot free full lenght sex tapes.
Agriculture for a range Agriculrure relevant baseline characteristics and demonstrated there are no esx ante systematic differences between treatment and control groups. Finally, the entire Hot free full lenght sex tapes. Agriculture, including Agricukture data which is also accessible as S1 Data S1 Data, computer code, and documents, was under revision control using Git https: This means all material can be downloaded fupl rerun the analysis and fere changes to the project over sdx, resulting in a level of dull that is exceptional in the social sciences.
Inference The matched randomization procedure was likely to introduce dependence among outcome variables within blocks, so it was necessary to account for clustering dree inference [ 26 ]. The typical AAgriculture to deal with this, using cluster-robust standard errors, is known to be biased in small samples. In addition, to facilitate comparison between simple fulll comparisons and more complicated models that control for additional variables such as previous knowledge, linear fere models were used. To address these two se, randomization inference RI was used, as RI remains exact regardless of the regression specification [ 30 ].
Instead of relying on HHot theoretical distribution, RI involves comparing the test frse with the distribution of the test statistic under each possible allocation of treatments. In this study, lenghh the main effects in the factorial design were tested. In particular, outcomes of farmers that received Se were compared to outcomes Agiculture farmers that had not received PSS. RI thus Hot free full lenght sex tapes. Agriculture computing outcomes within each block of four farmers for all 6 possible permutations of treatment T and control C: Not accounting for the method of randomization might have resulted in overly conservative standard errors and a significant reduction in power [ 26 ].
Therefore, in addition to accounting for clustering through the use of RI, regression models including fixed effects at the block level were also run. For example, to test the main treatment effect of the PSS treatment, within each block, one farmer that received the PSS treatment and one farmer that received both the PSS treatment and the PSSH treatment were compared to a farmer that received only the PSSH treatment and a farmer that received no treatment at all. Since an overall constant was included in the model, only 61 fixed effects were included.
In this video, a potato farmer from the area introduces himself and explains that his experiments over the years have taught him that good-quality planting material is key to becoming a successful farmer 0: He illustrates the benefits of good quality seed by contrasting healthy fields, plants, and tubers to diseased ones 1: The farmer also explains how he used to do it wrong, pulling out the strongest plants first to eat or sell, and hence was left with small and malformed tubers for planting. He explains how this quickly leads to seed degeneration 2: Next, the concept of Positive Seed Selection is introduced 3: In particular, the farmer explains that, at time of flowering, the tallest plants with at least four stems should be marked and pegged for follow-up.
Pegs in the form of wooden sticks in the video should be removed when plants get diseased or when they grow slowly 4: At the time of harvest, pegged plants should be harvested first 5: Only egg sized tubers should be retained for planting material 5: Tubers should look healthy, without cuts or bruises, and it is advised to only keep tubers with at least four eyes 5: The video ends by recapitulating the most important components of Positive Seed Selection. This video was produced in both Rufumbira and Rukiga, the two languages spoken in the study area. The first part, in which a farmer introduces himself as a successful potato grower from the region and illustrates the benefits of good-quality seeding material by contrasting healthy fields, plants and tubers to diseased ones, is similar to the first part in the video used in the PSS treatment 0: The farmer also explains that he used to store and handle seeds incorrectly, storing potatoes in sacks or together with other crops in places that were too dark and inadequately ventilated 2: The farmer then introduces PSSH.
He first underscores potatoes should be spread out on wooden racks, or on dried grass on the floor 3: Third, seed potatoes should be stored in a well ventilated place in diffuse lighting conditions and checked regularly for rotten tubers 4: Finally, the farmer advises the use of a cheap organophosphate insecticide for seed preservation and underscores the importance of cleaning all tools used during seed production to avoid contamination 5: This video was also produced in both Rufumbira and Rukiga languages. The choice of which techniques and information to highlight in both treatments was based on extensive interviews with potato-growing experts seed producers, extension officials, agronomists in the area and on analysis of data previously collected among potato farmers.
The treatments were administered at the individual level. Enumerators were trained to create a discreet environment. They were instructed to find a quiet place where they were unlikely to be disturbed. Most of the treatments were administered in the home of the farmer or in the field. Individual treatments are uncommon in agricultural extension. This is because it is often too costly to send agricultural extension workers to each individual farmer. Working with groups may also be more effective, as farmers may engage in discussion with each other and ask clarification.
However, it may also result in group dynamics that are difficult to control by the experimenter. At a more practical level, it is very difficult to exclude people from group screenings at community centers, greatly complicating the randomization. Showing videos on Android tablets has a much lower marginal cost, making it a potentially important technology to reach remote farmers. In particular, farmers were subjected to six multiple choice questions. All participants, including control farmers, were presented with all six questions. The questions were asked after the video was shown, unless for control subjects, who were given the six questions without any additional information.
Each question had three possible answers, which were read out to the farmer, and only one answer was correct. The farmer was then instructed to indicate what he or she thought was the correct answer. The answer of the farmer was then indicated by the enumerator on the questionnaire. Two of the six questions were related to topics that were discussed in the PSS treatment. As such, it was expected that farmers who received the PSS treatment would do better in answering these questions correctly. Another two questions were related to topics covered in the PSSH treatment, and it was expected that farmers who were provided information in the PSSH treatment to answer these questions correctly.
A final set of two questions, one on a topic related to PSS and one on a topic related to PSSH but not explicitly covered in the treatment videos were also included. All multiple choice questions and the correct answers are summarized in Table 1. Of course there are plenty of opportunities out there to milk cows or plough a field, should you wish to partake in some more traditional farm labour. Working days can range from a full seven to eight hours of physical labour to a couple of hours helping with the daily chores.
Look carefully though the information listed for each post and make sure to check with the owners beforehand how much time each day you will be expected to contribute. When can I do it? Safety checks on hosts can depend on the organisation and the country you are choosing to visit. Some regional WWOOF groups visit hosts before they are accepted and some do further checks and references, but this isn't always the case. On the Growfood site, you can find feedback from guests beneath each farm. However, you should still take the same precautions you would normally take if staying with strangers — if you are feeling unsure, you might prefer to go as a couple or with a friend.
It also gives a good idea of what kind of equipment to pack, which makes the work easier to carry out I built a wall, so gloves were essential! I think a phrase book is vital if you're going to be in a non-English-speaking country, too.
One day in France I was very exhausted and got Agrjculture upset while trying to build a turding wall, which is literally made out of mud and poo. Trying to explain this to my host in broken French didn't make it any easier! WWOOF was founded in by a London-based secretary who wanted to give people like herself access to the countryside and organic movement.
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